plate boundary, such as the Askja and Kverkfjöll fis- sure swarms in the Northern V olcanic Zone (Figure 1) contain long normal faults and open fissures, in ad- Magma Generation and development of the 2010 Eruption: Relevant records of eruptions for this volcano can date eruptions back 1100 years, these show that previously before the 2010 eruption there had been two to three eruptions. Explosivity increased from the Phreatomagmatic Eruption from a mixing of water and lava, Intense earthquake swarm that lasted three hours, First explosive phrase of magma discharge. Their magmatic sources, however, appear to be chemically separated in spite of apparent sympathetic behaviour of the two volcanoes. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). Eyjafjallajökull (Icelandic:  [ˈeiːjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœːkʏtl̥] (listen) ; lit. Iceland is located on the North American plate (Moving West) and the Eurasian plate (Moving East), creating a divergent plate boundary which move apart at 1-5cm every year.•. Also, the deformation was unusual as it was not related to the magma chamber pressure these highlight why mistakes were made (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). The plates are moving apart at a rate of 1-5cm a year. All work is written to order. This is not an example of the work produced by our Dissertation Writing Service. The volcano itself has a large ridge shape that’s in a lengthened east west direction (Jónsson, 1988). Other ways to monitor and predict future eruptions: The eruption in 2010 was the culmination of 18 years of unrest that was alternating in strength this shows the importance of monitoring volcanoes over weeks to years to see signs of potential eruptions. First, the island is located directly over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, or the boundary between the North American tectonic plate to the west and the Eurasian tectonic plate to the east. The impacts on the airline industry highlighted severe issues that need solutions for future eruptions of this scale. The wind caused widespread dispersal with the ash spreading over wide distances due to the wind direction and the duration of 13 days (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). Mixing of lava types (rhyolitic and basaltic). It’s where the North American and Eurasian plates meet, and runs for 10,000 km (16,000 miles) along the ocean floor. It is a relatively small volcano, and is located W of Katla volcano. These floods were known as the jo¨kulhlaups or glacial outburst floods that occurred on the 14th and 15th of April (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). These make up the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and has created the island of Iceland from two different types of volcanism. Then again in 1612 when a possible summit eruption arose (Jónsson, 1774; Larsen et al., 1999), and then in again 1821 when the volcano last erupted before 2010 eruption (Thoroddsen, 1925). Tours to Iceland; Nachrichten zum Eyjafjallajökull: Mi, 9. Eyjafjallajokull is located in Iceland on the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge which separates the North American and Eurasian plates. Sill intrusion beneath Eyjafjallajökull in 1999 was followed by a magmatic event at Katla, most likely a small subglacial eruption and a period of slow inflation 1999-2004. Iceland rests along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. The immediate build up to the eruption started in January with an increased activity of phrases of seismic Earthquakes as well as volcano uplifting suggesting magma movement towards the surface (Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). But the magma tended to be from more of a considerable depth (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). However this may or may not be directly be related to the region being by an Ash Cloud (Carlsen et al., 2012). Eyjafjallajökull … However, the Eyjafjallajökull eruption highlighted problems in this system and the need for it to be globally implemented across the globe. Pressure perturbation in the mantle may also affect the magma sources of both volcanoes. Between 1994 and 1999 it contracted in volume of around 0.0010 km3 at a fixed depth of 5km. Many of its slopes have been eroded down by the glaciers and rivers that run down from the ice sheet that peaks the volcano (REF). (convergent or divergent?) This developed into an official eruption that started on the 20th March and lasted around 6 weeks (REF). Started: April 14th, 2010 Ended: June 23rd, 2010 . This movement was first recorded in 1994 when a period of seismic observations was recorded by seismic and geodetic measurements. This phrase of the eruption being very violent for the size of the volcano was a result of the volcano being a Phreatomagmatic Eruption. The Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system is one of over 30 presently active volcanic systems in Iceland (Figure 1). Iceland is on a type of tectonic plate boundary called a divergent boundary. Saemundsson, 1978), and their activity is only affected slightly by the plate movements. 2002). Records show eruptions in 920, 1612 or 1613, 1821–23, and 2010. Increased unrest and more risk of eruption, or eruption is occurring, but violent explosive activity has no slowed or stopped. This give a certain level of warning to aviation companies and allow them to take an action needed (Gardner, 2006). The island has 30 active volcanic systems, of which 13 have erupted since thesettlement of Iceland in AD 874. These includes flooding, health effects and disruption to air traffic. Eyjafjallajokull is located below a glacier. (convergent or divergent?) (c) NASA Earth Observatory. Das Foto zeigt die beiden Ausbruchstellen, Eyjafjallajökull die am 14 April 2010 ausbrachen und Fimmvörðuháls vom 20 März bis 12 April 2010. Discharged increased again, Eruption declined until it eventually stopped, More explosions however they had a small amount of magma. Jun 2010, 07:40. Astrophysical Observatory. The strong influence of the topography suggests, however, that this intraplate stress field is weak. An E-W trending rift zone transects the volcano, most eruptive fissures and crater rows trend E-W, but occasional radial fissures are observed around the summit area. It erupted three times in 2010—on 20 March, April–May, and June. How far did the volcanic ash cloud from the eruption travel? During the 1996 swarm it indicates that tension was building suggesting magma was intruding up into the base of the crust, however no uplift was recorded (Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). I'm Stuck - GCSE and A-Level Revision 187,093 views. The eruption caused major disruption in the country as well as across the world. These eruptions were preceded by significant rifting and cracking on the ground surface, which are also emblematic of diverging plate movement. As small as a 2gm-3 of ash ingested in the engine can cause loss of power and near crashes (Sammonds, P., McGuire, B., Edwards, 2011). The volcano however had a steam plume that occurred for months after the eruption had stopped located at the crater on summit (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). The sudden melting of ice and snow however threatened the communities at distance to the site to the eruption (Kuenzler et al. These effects were unprecedented from the modest size of the volcano as such damage was not predicted. The volcano went through a small subglacial stage when the eruption melted through the glacier of 200m of ice which took 3 to 4 hours (Gudmundsson et al., 2012) and this created large amounts of meltwater that caused flooding nearby . Others are located off the boundary, in the so called flank zones (e.g. This may be improved in the future by organisations from across Europe working together to monitor the volcano. Dikes in the older parts of the volcano strike north-easterly and indicate a change in the stress orientation during the last 0.78 My. The EVZ and the WVZ are connected by the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ). Lava effused out in a 3km long lava flow which made its way northwards out of the caldera down the Gı´gjo¨kull glacier (Gudmundsson et al., 2012). Past eruptions such as the 2010 eruption and other volcanic explosions before that can be used to guide future preparation methods. 2:33. It erupted three times in 2010—on 20 March, April–May, and June. The volcanic edifice is an elongated, flat cone of about 1650 m height. There were however explosions on the 4th to the 8th of June but these explosions had a small amount of magma that was admitted and caused dispersion of Tephra that was limited as it was kept within 1km of the vents. A convergent plate boundary is a location where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other, often causing one plate to slide below the other (in a process known as subduction). The seismic activities were in horizontal sill intrusions at 4.5 – 6.3 km in depth below the southern flank (Pedersen and Sigmundsson, 2004, 2006; Hooper et al., 2009; Sturkell et al., 2010). As the ash can cause high damage to airframes, avionics and engines of civil jet aircraft. The volcanic edifice is an elongated, flat cone of about 1650 m height. However, it can be challenging whether a volcano is emitting ash particularly if the volcano is remote (Webley & Mastin, 2009). The Volcano is around an area of high volcanism where a Rift zone is located on the south of Iceland on the boundary between the North American Plate and Eurasian Plate. BGS scientists respond to volcanic eruptions and contribute to the Scientific Advisory Group in Emergencies (SAGE). The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Creates the mid-Atlantic ridge. Timeline of the eruption on Eyjafjallajökull: March - April 2010. These occurred in the 10th century when a flank eruption occurred (Óskarsson, 2009). However, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano is situated just beyond the propagating rift of plate spreading in Iceland. As well a contraction from 2000 to 2009 was recorded at the southern flank at a volume of 0.0015 ± 0.0003 km3/year at 5.5 ± 2.0 km in depth(Hjaltadóttir et al., 2015). Yet trauma response teams from the Red Cross were at evacuations and in community centres at the time of the eruption (Carlsen et al., 2012). 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